Writings, Musings and Presentations

by Dave Crocker







Process and Governance:


Internet Specifications:



eCommerce and Security

BBC4 Radio, Today Programme 3-part series: Online Crime

Mine was the final segment.

  1. Cybercrime, Guillaume Lovet, Fortinet, 27 Dec 2006  »  mp3 audio
  2. Spam, Richard Cox, The Spamhaus Project , 28 Dec 2006  »  mp3 audio
  3. Thoughts on the Future of the Internet, Dave Crocker, BBIW,29 Dec 2006  »  pdf text, mp3 audio
Conducting Business Via The Net: Success Factors APEC SME, Kuala Lumpur  »  ppt;
Commerce and Financial Transaction Security Over the Internet  »  ppt
The Dance of Co-Opetition  »  ppt
The Internet is Safe Enough  »  ppt
Standards, Progress & Competitive Pressures
  1. RANS, Moscow  »  ppt
An Unaffiliated View of Electronic Commerce
  1. Oct., 95, Austin  »  ppt, ps
    Electronic Commerce conference. (There's a book chapter from this presentation, cited below.)
Making Commerce Safe  »  ppt
Securing Transactions: Protocols and Politics  »  ppt


Email and MIME

DKIM's SSP Effort -- Is there a role for MAAWG?
  1. MAAWG / Toronto »   ppt, November 2006
Reputation Discussion Panels: Seeking a Common Understanding
  1. MAAWG / S.F. »   ppt, March 2006
A Trust Overlay for Email Operations:  DKIM and Beyond
  1. Apricot / Perth,  »   ppt, February 2006
System Aspects of Spam Control
  1. IBM Academy »   ppt, Feb. 2005
Authentication Approaches
  1. APCauce/Apricot »   ppt, Kyoto, Feb. 2005
  2. Handling Service Support: CSV & BATV »   HTML, PDF or ppt
Spamming Anti-Spam Solution Space
  1. SDForum Security SIG »   ppt, Palo Alto, Oct. 2004
How Will Authentication Reduce Global Spam?
  1. OECD Anti-Spam Task Force II »   ppt, Pusan, Sept. 2004
A Retrospective on Future Anti-Spam Standards
  1. China Anti-Spam Workshop II »   ppt, Beijing, Sept. 2004
INBOX Conference
  1. Email Authentications »   ppt
  2. Email Success Failure »   ppt
China Anti-Spam Workshop
  1. Taking Common Action Against Spam, Internet Society of China, Keynote, Apr. 2004, Beijing »   ppt,
  2. Trip Report, on the Chinese efforts to fight spam
Spam: Ready, Fire, Aim
  1. APCause Keynote, Apricot 2004, Kuala Lumpur  »  ppt—with animation, pdf—without animation
A Letters to the Editor "conversation" on spam control, in Technology Review
  1. Cockroaches
  2. Ready, Fire, Aim
  3. Charging
Holistic Evaluation
  1. ISPCon, Santa Clara  »  ppt
DNS-based Message-Transit Authentication Techniques
  1. DENIC Registrar's Meeting, Frankfurt »   ppt, Sept. 2005
Technology Considerations for Spam Control
  1. 3rd AP Net Abuse Workshop »   Busan  »  ppt,
Serious Email Service
  1. Apricot 99, Singapore  »  ppt;
Business Quality Mail Security
  1. FaxDirections 99, San Diego  »  ppt;
Business Quality Mail
  1. SciTech 99, San Diego  »  ppt;
Riding the IETF Standards Train for MIME
  1. EEMA's ECE98, Amsterdam  »  ppt;
Intranet Mail is Here: Throw out Your Legacy System
  1. Oct., 96, Internet Expo/EMail World  »  ppt
    Review of Internet mail facilities, directions and issues.


Value-added Applications

Fax over Internet for IETF and ITU
  1. EEMA's ECE98, Amsterdam  »  ppt
Store-and-Forward Simple Internet Fax
  1. FaxDirections '98, San Diego  »  ppt;
Store-and-Forward Full Internet Fax
  1. FaxDirections '98, San Diego  »  ppt


Standards, Governance and Internet Process

Level 10 Routing: Long Division and Irrational Factions
  1. RIPE, Edinburgh  »  ppt with comments
Integration, Infrastructure, and Standards ppt



Challenges in Anti-Spam Efforts
  1. IPJ Magazine, Vol.8, No.4,
    HTML, December 2005

Adapting Global Email for Controlling Spam


  • IPSJ MagazineSpecial issue on Anti-Spam,
    Japanese / English, Vol.46, No.7, pp.741-746, July 2005

Notice for the use of the Japanese version: The copyright of this material is retained by the Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ). This material is published on this web page with the agreement of the author(s) and the IPSJ. Please be complied with Copyright Law of Japan and the Code of Ethics of IPSJ if any users wish to reproduce, make derivative work, distribute or make available to the public any part or whole thereof. All Rights Reserved, Copyright (C) Information Processing Society of Japan. Comments are welcome. Mail to address Publication Section, please.

A Letters to the Editor "conversation" on spam control, in Technology Review
Unsolicited Bulk Email: Mechanisms for Control
  1. Internet Mail Consortium
Internet Data Object Security
  1. Standards and deployment for MIME and mail; The G5 Messaging Forum
Green Paper comments
  1. Submission to US government's NTIA consideration of IANA
Evolving the System
  1. In Lynch & Rose, Internet System Handbook; Addison-Wesley (Reading, 1993)
On the Origins of Internet Mail Species
  1.  »  txt or MS word; D. Crocker, ConneXions, Copyright (c) Dec, 1994 by Interop Company. Review of ancient history.
The History of MMDF
  1. Covers early work on Arpanet/Internet email, including MH, PP and PMDF.
The ROAD to a New IP
  1. ConneXions, Copyright (c) Sept, 1992, by Interop Company  »  txt, MS doc.
    If you've wondered about the beginnings of the new version of IP (IPv6) this articles gives some background. Back when IPv6's goals were clearer, so were the technical solutions.
A Malaysian Journal
  1. Notes on living and working in Malaysia
An Internetwork Memo Distribution Facility -- MMDF
  1. Crocker, D. H., Szurkowski, E. S., and Farber, D. J., 6th Data Communication Symposium, Asilomar. November 1979.


Book Reviews by DCrocker

Published in The Internet Protocol Journal:
Review of: Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace
  1. January, 2003  »  html
    Milton L. Mueller's ostensible analysis of name and number assignment processes.
  • Author response; reviewer follow-up
 »  html
Published in "ConneXions, The Interoperability Report".
(Ole's a great guy and it got me a free subscription...)
Distributed Computing: Implementation and Management Strategies
  1. R. Khanna, Ed.
The Email Frontier
  • Blum & Litwack
  1. Timothy Ramteke
Open Systems Networking: TCP/IP and OSI
  1. D. M. Piscitello & A.L. Chapin

Process and Governance

IETF Standardization and Operations

Making Standards the IETF Way
  1. D. Crocker; (c) 1993, Association for Computing Machinery [Reprinted from StandardsView, Vol. 1, No. 1,1993(1)]
Evolving the System
  1. D. Crocker; 1993. In Internet System Handbook, D. Lynch and M. Rose (eds.). Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. Similar to "Making Standards" but is more formal and complete and preceded it. On the other hand it's a wonderful book.
The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 2.
  1. Internet Architecture Board and Internet Engineering Steering Group. March 1994. (Updated by RFC 1871, BCP 0002)  »  RFC 1602
    Wrote about half of the text.
IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures
  1. E. Huizer & D.Crocker. March 1994  »  RFC 1603;


Internet "Governance"

Green Paper comments Submission to US government's NTIA consideration of IANA
Level 10 Routing: Long Division and Irrational Factions
  1. RIPE, Edinburgh  »  ppt with comments;
The Debate Over Internet Governance:  A Snapshot in the Year 2000
  1. Interview, with Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 2000 (html)
Review of: Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace
  1. January, 2003: »  html
    Milton L. Mueller's ostensible analysis of name and number assignment processes.
  • Mueller response, and my follow-up
 »  html, pdf
Preserve and Enhance: Balancing Goals for the Internet
  1. Apricot Keynote 2004, Kuala Lumpur (ppt / pdf)

Internet Specifications

Authored or participated in these efforts.

Mail Content and eCommerce

Internet Mail Architecture

Formal specification of the current email service. Specification began in 2004 and has iterated through many public reviews. It is essential complete and is being submitted for IETF standards consideration:

  • Internet-Draft — draft-crocker-email-arch-11, Oct 08  »  htmlpdftxt
Email Submission Operations: Access and Accountability Requirements
  1. RFC 5068 / BCP 134 (html, txt, pdf)
Bounce Address Tag Validation (BATV) Using a public convention for adding signature information to RFC2821.MailFrom addresses, including a localized, storage-friendly hash method:
  1. draft-levine-batv-03 (html / txt)
Registration-based Validation
  1. Client SMTP Validation (CSV)
Technical Considerations for Spam Control
  1. Taxonomy of issues
Scope and Structure of Internet Mail Addresses
  1. mailaddr-scope.ppt
Mandatory MIME Security Considered Harmful
  1. draft-crocker-mime-security-00.txt
IFAX service of ENUM
  1. Toyoda, K. and Crocker, D., Facsimile Using Internet Mail (IFAX) Service of ENUM, November 2005.  »  RFC 4143
Full-mode Fax Profile for Internet Mail (FFPIM) 
  1. K. Toyoda, D. Crocker, November 2005  »  RFC 4142
SMTP and MIME Extensions for Content Conversion
  1. Toyoda, K. and Crocker, D. Nov 2005.  »  RFC 4141
Content Negotiation for Messaging Services based on Email 
  1. G. Klyne, R. Iwazaki, D. Crocker, July 2002  »  RFC 3297
Tunneling MIME Objects: Application/MIME
  1. D. Crocker, Lundblade, Zawinski.
     »  draft-crocker-tunnel-00.txt
Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and Multipart/Encrypted
  1. J. Galvin, S. Murphy, S. Crocker & N. Freed. October 1995  »  RFC 1847
    Creating standards while sitting around a bar. I wasn't even participating in the working group -- my brother's bailiwick, and all that -- and chanced on the conversation. Suggested the basic approach that got adopted. Didn't even pay for my own drink.
MIME Encapsulation of EDI Objects
  1. D. Crocker. March 1995  »  RFC 1767
MIME Content Type for BinHex Encoded Files.
  1. P. Faltstrom, D.Crocker & E. Fair. December 1994  »  RFC 1741
MIME Encapsulation of Macintosh Files - MacMIME.
  1. P. Faltstrom, D. Crocker & E. Fair. December 1994  »  RFC 1740
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Two: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII text
  1. K. Moore. September 1993  »  RFC 1522
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part One: Mechanisms for Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet Message Bodies
  1. N. Borenstein & N. Freed. September 1993  »  RFC 1521 (Updated by RFC1590)
Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages
  1. D. Crocker. August 1982  »  RFC 822


Mail Transport

Mailbox Names for Common Services, Roles and Functions 
SMTP Service Extension for Message Size Declaration.
  • J. Klensin, N. Freed, & K. Moore. November 1995  »  RFC 1870 (Also STD 0011)
SMTP Service Extensions.
  • J. Klensin, N. Freed, M. Rose, E. Stefferud & D. Crocker. November 1995  »  RFC 1869 (Also STD 0010)
SMTP Service Extension for Checkpoint/Restart.
  • D. Crocker, N. Freed & A. Cargille. September 1995 »  RFC 1845
SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport
  • Klensin, N. Freed, M. Rose, E. Stefferud & D. Crocker. July 1994.  »  RFC 1652
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • J. Postel. August 1982  »  RFC 821


Internet Transport, Transmission and Operations

Simple Network Paging Protocol - Version 3 -Two-Way Enhanced
  1. A. Gwinn. October 1995 »  RFC 1861
To Be "On" the Internet
  1. D. Crocker. March 1995 »  RFC 1775
Transport Multiplexing Protocol
  1. TMux; P. Cameron, D. Crocker, D. Cohen & J. Postel. August 1994  »  RFC 1692
Network 10 Considered Harmful (Some Practices Shouldn't be Codified)
  1. Lear, E, et al, July 1994  »  RFC 1627


Multiaddressing — Mobility and multihoming

These cover two sides of the same set of requirements, called multiaddressing. The goal is to preserve associations across locator (address) changes. An association is shared state, such as a transport connection. Mobility and multihoming each include requirements from the other. A mobile host needs to support old and new locators at the same time, as does multihoming. A multihomed host needs to add and remove addresses; as does mobility. Site renumbering is a special case of multihoming


Transport-level multihoming and mobility

Choices for Support of MultiAddressing
Framework for evaluating proposals


Protocol proposal

Multiple Address Service For Transport (MAST): An Extended Proposal

 »  draft-crocker-mast-proposal-01.doc

MAST and Multi6

 »  mast-multi6-minne.ppt

Multiaddressing with MAST

Shared locators

Framework for Common Endpoint Locator Pools



Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF
  • Jan 2008  »  txt
DNS Scoped Data Through Attribute Leaves With the DNS leading-underscore naming construct, the choice of valid RRs is limited to a defined set. It defines a scope-constrained attribute space for the containing domain name.
  • draft-crocker-dns-attrleaf-02 (txt, html)
PCI: Personal Contact Information
  1. Jun 1993  »  txt
STIF: Structured text Interchange Format
  1. March 1996  »  pdf, txt, ppt
Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF
  1. Crocker, D. and Overell, P., Nov 1997  »  RFC 2234
Common Presence and Instant Messaging (CPIM)
  1.  » draft-ietf-impp-cpim-02.txt


Ancient History

  • RFC 498, On Mail Service to CCN. R.T. Braden. Apr-17-73
  • RFC 539, Thoughts on the mail protocol proposed in RFC 524. D. Crocker, J. Postel. Jul-07-1973.
  • RFC 577, Mail priority. D. Crocker. Oct-18-1973.
  • RFC 581, Corrections to RFC 560: Remote Controlled Transmission and Echoing Telnet option. D. Crocker, J. Postel. Nov-02-1973.
  • RFC 585, ARPANET users interest working group meeting. D. Crocker, N. Neigus, E.J. Feinler, J. Iseli. Nov-06-1973.
  • RFC 615, Proposed Network Standard Data Pathname syntax. D. Crocker. Mar-01-1974.
  • RFC 645, Network Standard Data Specification syntax. D. Crocker. Jun-26-1974.
  • RFC 651, Revised Telnet status option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 652, Telnet output carriage-return disposition option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 653, Telnet output horizontal tabstops option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 654, Telnet output horizontal tab disposition option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 655, Telnet output formfeed disposition option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 656, Telnet output vertical tabstops option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 657, Telnet output vertical tab disposition option. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 658, Telnet output linefeed disposition. D. Crocker. Oct-25-1974.
  • RFC 720, Address specification syntax for network mail. D. Crocker. Aug-05-1976.
  • RFC 729, Telnet byte macro option. D. Crocker. May-13-1977.

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